Eight kinds of PCB surface treatment process
1, hot air leveling (spray tin)
Hot air leveling, also known as hot air solder leveling (commonly known as spray tin), it is in the PCB surface coated with molten tin (lead) solder and heating compressed air by the whole (blowing) flat process, to form a layer of both copper oxidation, But also provide a good solderable coating. When the hot air is flattened, the solder and copper form a copper-tin intermetallic compound at the junction. PCB hot air leveling to sink in the molten solder; air knife in the solder before the liquid blowing liquid liquid; air knife can be on the copper surface of the solder moon to minimize and prevent solder bridge.
2, organic solderability protection agent (OSP)
OSP is a process that meets the RoHS directive requirements of printed circuit board (PCB) copper foil surfaces. OSP is an abbreviation of Organic Solderability Preservatives, translated into organic solder film, also known as copper, English also known as Preflux. Simply put, OSP is in the clean bare copper surface, the chemical method to grow a layer of organic film.
This layer of film with anti-oxidation, heat shock, moisture resistance, to protect the copper surface in the normal environment is no longer continue to rust (oxidation or curing, etc.); but in the subsequent high temperature welding, the protective film must be very Easy to be quickly removed by the flux, so that the exposed surface of the clean copper can be in a very short period of time with the melting of solder immediately into a solid solder joints.
3, the whole board nickel plating
Plate nickel plating is the first surface of the PCB conductor coated with a layer of nickel and then coated with a layer of gold, nickel is mainly to prevent the spread between gold and copper. There are two types of electroplating nickel: plating gold (gold, gold surface does not look bright) and hard gold plating (surface smooth and hard, wear, containing cobalt and other elements, gold surface looks more bright). Soft gold is mainly used for chip packaging when playing gold; hard gold is mainly used in non-welded electrical interconnection.
4, immersion gold
Shen Jin is wrapped in a thick layer of copper on the copper surface, good electrical nickel alloy, which can protect the PCB for a long time; In addition it also has other surface treatment process does not have the tolerance of the environment. In addition, immersion gold can also prevent the dissolution of copper, which will benefit lead-free assembly.
5, Immersion tin
Since all current solder is based on tin, the tin layer can match any type of solder. Shen tin process can form a flat copper-tin intermetallic compound, this feature makes Shen tin and hot air leveling with the same good solderability and no hot air leveling headache flatness problem; Shen tin plate can not be stored for too long , Assembly must be based on the order of Shen tin.
6, Immersion silver
The silver process is between organic coating and electroless nickel / immersion gold, the process is relatively simple and fast; even exposed to hot, wet and polluted environment, silver can still maintain good solderability, but will lose luster The Shen silver does not have the chemical nickel plating / immersion gold has a good physical strength because there is no nickel under the silver layer.
7, chemical nickel palladium gold
Chemical nickel palladium gold and gold compared to gold and gold is more than a layer of palladium, palladium can prevent the replacement reaction caused by corrosion, for the preparation of immersion gold. Kim is closely covered with palladium, providing a good contact surface.
8, electroplating hard gold
In order to improve the wear resistance of the product, increase the number of plugging and electroplating hard gold.
As the requirements of the user is getting higher and higher, the environmental requirements become more and more strict, more and more surface treatment process, in the end the choice of the development prospects, more versatile surface treatment process, now seems a bit confusing, confusing The PCB surface treatment process will be where the future, and now can not accurately predict. In any case, to meet user requirements and protect the environment must first be done!